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M. Sadegh Safarzadeh, J.D. Miller, The pyrometallurgy of enargite: A literature update, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 157, 2016

G.A. Bezuidenhout, J.J. Eksteen, G. Akdogan, B. Van Beek, W. Wendt, W. Persson, Implementation of flame optical emission spectroscopy system for converter Fe end-point control associated with Ni-Cu-S-PGM converter mattes, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 100, 2017

W. Lu, Z. Yin, Study on thermal decomposition and arsenic removal of a silver bearing copper ore, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 153, 2016

A. Rozendaal, R. Horn, Textural, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of copper reverb furnace smelter slag of the Okiep Copper District, South Africa, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 52, 2013

H. Johto, P. Taskinen, Phase stabilities and thermodynamic assessment of the system Cu–Pb–S, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 42, 2013

M. Zhang, G. Zhu, Y. Zhao, X. Feng, A study of recovery of copper and cobalt from copper–cobalt oxide ores by ammonium salt roasting, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 129-130, 2012

M. Samouhos, R. Hutcheon, I. Paspaliaris, Microwave reduction of copper(II) oxide and malachite concentrate, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 8, 2011

C.A. Pickles, C. Harris, J. Peacey, Silver loss during the oxidative refining of silver-copper alloys, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2011

Ge, X.L., and Seetaraman, S., The salt extraction process- a novel route for metal extraction. Part 2- Cu/Fe extraction from copper oxide and sulphides, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Trans. IMM Sec. C), Vol.119, No.2, 2010

Andrews, L., and Pistorius, P.C., Nickel, copper and cobalt distribution and equilibria in Anglo Platinum furnace slags, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Trans. IMM Sec. C), Vol.119, No.2, 2010

Muinonen, M., et al, Fluid bed roasting of nickel-copper matte, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.49, No.2, 2010

Warner, N.A., Low intensity continuous copper smelting, Trans. IMM Section, Vol.119, No.1, 2010

Eidem, P.A., et al, Activity of Sb in Cu-Ni mattes, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.48, No.4, 2009

Kaur, R.R., et al, Nickel, lead and antimony distributions between ferrous calcium silicate slag and copper at 1300C, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Trans. IMM C), Vol.118, No.2, 2009

Lynch, D.C., Henrian activity coefficient of Pb in Cu-Ni mattes, CIM Magazine, Vol.4, No.2, 2009

Coursol, P., et al, Optimization of the Xstrata Copper-Horne smelter operation using discrete event simulation, CIM Magazine, Vol.4, No.2, 2009

Lynch, D.C., Henrian activity coefficient of Pb in Cu-Ni mattes, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.47 No.4, 2008

Olper, M., et al, Simplified Copper Production from Primary Concentrates: The Direct Electrorefining of White Metal/Copper Matte, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.47 No.3, 2008

L. Winkel, I. Alxneit, M. Sturzenegger, Thermal decomposition of copper concentrates under concentrated radiation -- Mechanistic aspects of the separation of copper from iron sulfide phases, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol.88 No.1-2, 2008

Kongoli, F., et al, Liquidus relationships of calcium ferrite and ferrous calcium silicate slag in continuous copper converting, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Trans. IMM Sec. C), Vol.117 No.2, 2008

L. Winkel, J. Wochele, C. Ludwig, I. Alxneit, M. Sturzenegger, Decomposition of copper concentrates at high-temperatures: An efficient method to remove volatile impurities, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2008

Wang, J.-P., and Cho, W.D., Kinetics of copper oxide dissolution in Na2O- based slags, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.47 No.2, 2008

Perez-Tello, M., et al, Model for the fragmentation of copper matte particles during flash converting. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol.25, No.1, 2008

Rosello, A., et al, Desulfurization rate during the copper blow in a Peirce-Smith Converter, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol.39 No.1, 2008

P. Shanmuganathan, P. Lakshmipathiraj, S. Srikanth, A.L. Nachiappan and A. Sumathy, Toxicity characterization and long-term stability studies on copper slag from the ISASMELT process, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol.52 No.4, 2008

Marin, T., et al, Kinetics of liquid copper reduction with graphite, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.46 No.4, 2007

L. Winkel, I. Alxneit and M. Sturzenegger, New paths for a SO2-free copper production, Minerals Engineering, Vol.20 No.12, 2007

Gonzalez, C.A., et al, Copper matte penetration resistance of basic refractories, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol.38 No.2, 2007

Lynch, D.C., Henrian activity coefficient of Bi in Cu-Ni mattes, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.46 No.2, 2007

Coursol, P., et al, The Noranda continuous converter at Xstrata Copper, Rouyn-Noranda- optimization of slag chemistry, CIM Magazine, Vol.2 No.2, 2007

Liu, J., and Utigard, T.A., Reduction of nickel-copper matte/oxysulfide slag, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.45 No.4, 2006

C.B. Solnordal et al, A Correlation-Based Model for Predicting Gas Extraction Performance in a Copper Converting Plant, JOM, Vol.58 No.10, 2006

A. MacRae and J. Lenz, S-Furnace Roof Modifications at Xstrata Copper, Timmins, Canada, JOM, Vol.58 No.10, 2006

Fan, Y., et al, Interaction of cupric ferrite, copper matte and slag at 1573K, Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol.23 No.3, 2006

Reddy, R.G., et al, Recovery of copper from copper blast furnace slag, Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol.23 No.2, 2006

Y. Hua, C. Cai and Y. Cui, Microwave-enhanced roasting of copper sulfide concentrate in the presence of CaCO3, Separation and Purification Technology, Vol.50 No.1, 2006

T.S. Kho, D.R. Swinbourne, and T. Lehner, Cobalt Distribution during Copper Matte Smelting, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol.37B No.2, 2006

Chen, E., and Coley, K., Gas slag reaction kinetics in slag cleaning of copper slags, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.45 No.2, 2006

Sturzenegger, M., et al, Solar extraction of copper: on application of concentrated sunlight in extractive metallurgy, Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Trans. IMM C), , Vol.115 No.1, 2006

Jung, W.-G., and Sohn, H.-S., Kinetic study on lead removal from molten copper by gas bubbling, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.45 No.1, 2006

Syamujulu, M., A technical and operational audit of the first ten years of the Teniente converter operations at Nkana smelter, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol.105 No.9, 2005

Schmitz, W. Trauzeddel, D., Saving Energy in Melting Copper Materials in State-of-the-Art Induction Furnaces. Erzmetall, Vol.58 No.5, 2005

Wright, S., et al, Activities of Cu, Fe and Ni in Cu-Fe-Ni-S mattes, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, Vol.114 No.3, 2005

Font, J.M., and Reddy, R.G., Modelling of antimonate capacity in copper and nickel smelting slags, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, Vol.114 No.3, 2005

Imris, I., et al, Copper losses to slags obtained from the El Teniente process, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, Vol.114 No.3, 2005

Goonan, T. G., Material flows generated by pyromet copper smelting. Mining Engineering, Vol.57 No.8, 2005

Ng, K. W. Kapusta, J. P. T. Harris, R. Wraith, A. E. Parra, R., Modeling Peirce-Smith Converter Operating Costs. JOM, Vol.57 No.7, 2005

Marin, T. Utigard, T., The Kinetics and Mechanism of Molten Copper Oxidation by Top Blowing of Oxygen. JOM, Vol.57 No.7, 2005

Coursol, P. Davis, B. Roy, A. Lebel, M., Oxygen Removal from Blister Copper by Copper Oxide Formation. JOM, Vol.57 No.7, 2005

Ross, A. MacMillan, A., Frontline Planning and Scheduling at Inco's Copper Cliff Smelter Complex. JOM, Vol.56 No.12, 2004

Sanchez-Corrales, V. M. Valera-Gonzalez, J. A. Flores-Perez, P. Perez-Tello, M., Mass Balance Calculations in Copper Flash Smelting by Means of Genetic Algorithms. JOM, Vol.56 No.12, 2004

Coursol, P. Stubina, N. Carissimi, E. Zamalloa, M. Mackey, P. J., Industrial Development of a Novel Sulfate System for Copper Pyro-Refining. JOM, Vol.56 No.12, 2004

Tee, J.K.S., and Fray, D.J., Reaction of zinc, copper and iron in air and chlorine mixtures. Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, Vol.113 No.3, 2004

Voltura, S.A., Continuous improvements in the Phelps Dodge Miami Mining smelter. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol.21 No.3, 2004

Reddy, R.G., Prabhu, V.L., and Mantha, D., Recovery of valuable metals from copper blast furnace slag. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol.21 No.3, 2004

Zaja, A. Czkowski Botor, J. Czernecki, J., Thermodynamics of Copper and Lead in Alumina Saturated Flash Smelting Slag. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.43 No.3, 2004

Kapusta, J. P. T., JOM World Nonferrous Smelters Survey, Part I: Copper. JOM, Vol.56 No.7, 2004

Coursol, P. Larouche, P., Using Carbonate Fluxes to Remove Oxygen and Sulfur from Blister Copper. JOM, Vol.56 No.7, 2004

Stefanova, V. Genevski, K. Stefanov, B., Mechanism of oxidation of pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite during flash smelting. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.43 No.1, 2004

Liu, Z., et al, Preparation of novel reducing agent and its application in copper pyrorefining. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Trans. IMM C), Vol.112 No.2, 2003

D. Bandyopadhyay, R.M. Singru, A.K. Biswas. Study of the Roasting of Chalcopyrite Minerals by 57Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy. Minerals Engineering, Vol.13, No.8-9, 2000

Davidson, A.J., and Fray, D.J., Development of a sensor to measure copper in alloys and matte. Trans. IMM, Sect. C., Vol. 108, Sept.-Dec. 1999



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