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Chloride Metallurgy 2002
These two volumes are the proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Hydrometallurgy Division of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum held in Montreal in October 2002. The first conference on this topic was held in Brussels in 1977 and was entitled "Chloride Hydrometallurgy" followed by another in 1982 in Dallas, Texas and was entitled "Chloride Electrometallurgy". The present conference is much larger in scope. It provides a theoretical and an engineering approach to topics such as lixiviant regeneration through pyrohydrolosis or (membrane) electrolysis, fluid bed and spray roaster, energy recovery, formation and handling of dioxins and furans, chlorination of sulphides, autoclave leaching of sulphide and oxide ores (laterites), solvent extraction, electrowinning in chloride solutions and molten salts, materials of construction, and recycling of a number of metal-containing waste material. Author and subject indexes are provided together with a historical introduction on the discovery of chlorine and a couple of excellent review papers.
The two volumes contain a wealth of information that are not only useful to hydrometallurgists but to pyro- and electrometallurgists as well. Hence the title of the volume is quite appropriate. A large number of the authors are well known metallurgists with extensive experience, thus their contributions are certainly authoritative. A number of new and some old processes have been reported at this conference.
The two volumes contain a wealth of information that are not only useful to hydrometallurgists but to pyro- and electrometallurgists as well. Hence the title of the volume is quite appropriate. A large number of the authors are well known metallurgists with extensive experience, thus their contributions are certainly authoritative. A number of new and some old processes have been reported at this conference. For example:
· PLATSOL Process. Dissolution of Cu, Ni, Au, and Pt-group metals from low-grade sulfide concentrates in H2SO4-NaCl solution at 225oC under oxygen pressure (pp. 11-28).
· PLINT Process. Recovery of metals from a variety of metallurgical waste materials such as silver from jarosite, gold from iron hydroxide, etc., by brine leaching in presence of an oxidant, e.g., Fe3+ ion and aq. Cl2 (pp. 29-40).
· ITOS Process. Low grade silver ore (tailings) is leached by HCl containing NaCl and FeCl3 at 75oC. After cooling to crystallize and separate PbCl2, the solution is treated by scrap into to precipitate silver (pp. 69-83).
· ERMS and EARS Processes. Production of synthetic rutile from ilmenite by roasting at 800-1000o followed by leaching at the boiling point with 25% HCl, then filtering off FeCl2 solution (pp. 401-415).
· ALTAIR Process. Leaching ilmenite by concentrated HCl, crystallization of FeCl2.nH2O, extraction of titanyl ion by tri-alkyl phosphine oxide, eluation of the titanyl chloride, then spray-drying to recover high-purity TiO2. Hydrochloric acid is recovered for recycle (pp. 417-432).
· REPTILE Process. Ilmenite mixed with carbon is treated by chlorine at 1000oC in presence of controlled amount of oxygen such that TiCl4 is generated in the bed to react with ilmenite forming FeCl2 and TiO2. Ferrous chloride apparently volatilizes and treated with oxygen in another reactor to form Fe2O3 and Cl2 for the process (pp. 433-447).
· INTEC/DEXTEC Process. Leaching of sulphide concentrates at 85oC and atmospheric pressure in presence of oxygen, NaCl, and BrCl2- ion as catalyst which is generated in the electrowinning step (pp. 577-592 and 269).
· HydroCopper Process. Chalcopyrite is leached at 60-100oC and at normal pressure by cupric chloride solution in presence of oxygen and at pH 2 to form Cu+, FeOOH, and So. Cuprous oxide is then precipitated by NaOH then reduced by hydrogen to metallic copper. A chlor-alkali circuit regenerates the reagents (pp. 609-613).
· EZINEX Process. Leaching of electric arc furnace dust containing zinc by NH4Cl solution. After solution purification zinc is recovered by electrolysis (pp. 629-640).
There are also a number of new un-named processes:
· Recovery of high purity silver from AgCl by ammonia leaching followed by boiling to decompose the complex and precipitate pure AgCl crystals for reduction to metal.(pp. 55-68).
· Heap leaching of cobaltic oxide ore with HCl followed by precipitation of cobalt hydroxide by MgO. Hydrochloric acid is then regenerated from the MgCl2 waste solution by standard methods (pp. 593-608)
· Electrowinning of zinc from molten chloride salt (pp. 615-628).
· Up-grading titanium slag by selective chlorination of the impurities in molten salts and their removal from the slag (pp. 449-462).
In addition there is a number of useful basic studies on:
· Scale formation during leaching of laterite in HCl (pp. 373-388).
· Solibility of CaSO4 in chloride media (pp. 561-574).
· Physico-chemical data of metal ions and HCl in solutions (pp. 759-791).
A few and minor typographical errors have been spotted: Re2O3 should be RE2O3 (p. 232), Minemet Recherché should be Minemet Recherche (p. 265), olatilised should be volatilized (p. 238), Oruro was founded in 1590 not 1950 (p. 71) while the reaction on page 538 is not valid:
2 NaCl + CaCO3 -> Na2CO3 + CaCl2
Editor Edgar Peek is with Falconbridge and editor Gus Van Weert is with the Consulting firm Oretome, both in Canada. The volumes are well produced and represent an important contribution to the literature of extractive metallurgy. They are an essential addition to the library. The editors and the organizing committee are to be congratulated for this fine effort.
Fathi Habashi, Laval University, Quebec City, Fathi.Habashi@gmn.ulaval.ca
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